Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a condition that affects the development of bones and other tissues in the face.
Mutations in the TCOF1 gene cause Treacher Collins syndrome. The TCOF1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called treacle. Although researchers have not determined the precise function of this protein, they believe that it plays a critical role before birth in the development of bones and other tissues in the face. Mutations in the TCOF1 gene reduce the amount of treacle that is produced in cells. Researchers believe that a loss of this protein signals cells that are important for the development of facial bones to self-destruct (undergo apoptosis). This abnormal cell death may lead to the specific problems with facial development found in Treacher Collins syndrome.
This condition affects an estimated 1 in 50,000 people. It has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. About 60 percent of cases result from new mutations in the TCOF1 gene. These cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. In the remaining cases, a person with Treacher Collins syndrome inherits the altered gene from an affected parent.
The signs and symptoms of this disorder vary greatly, ranging from almost unnoticeable to severe. Most affected individuals have underdeveloped facial bones, particularly the cheek bones, and a very small jaw and chin (micrognathia). Some people with this condition are also born with an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate. In severe cases, underdevelopment of the facial bones may restrict an affected infant’s airway, causing potentially life-threatening respiratory problems.
People with Treacher Collins syndrome often have eyes that slant downward, sparse eyelashes, and a notch in the lower eyelids called a coloboma. Some affected individuals have additional eye abnormalities that can lead to vision loss. This condition is also characterized by absent, small, or unusually formed ears. Defects in the middle ear (which contains three small bones that transmit sound) cause hearing loss in about half of cases. People with Treacher Collins syndrome usually have normal intelligence.
The treatment of TCS should be tailored to the specific symptoms and needs of each individual. The primary concern are breathing and feeding problems. Sometimes a tracheostomy is necessary to maintain an adequate airway. A gastrostomy could be necessary to assure a adequate caloric intake while protecting the airway. Surgery to restore a normal structure of the face is normally performed at defined ages, depending on the development state.
With proper management of symptoms and needs, patients with TCS can have a normal life expectancy.